Reduced Passive Earth Pressure
Evolution of passive earth pressure σp corresponds to the maximal displacement of a structure pushed into the soil. Such a displacement might not, however, occur (e.g. in case of fixed sheeting structures) and the structure is loaded by the reduced passive earth pressure σps. The value of reduced passive earth pressure σps can range from the value of earth pressure at rest σr (in case of zero deformation) up to the value of passive earth pressure σp. Figure shows the dependence of values of earth pressure of a cohesionless soil (soil resistance) on the actual displacement d to maximal displacement dmax ratio (when activating passing earth pressure σp).
Dependence of earth pressure values on the ratio of actual structure deformation